For the residents of the English city of Salisbury, 2018 will be remembered as the year the nerve agent Novichok came to town. Professor Andrea Sela calls it a uniquely devastating poison. The nervous system just fires wildly, and so you get all these bizarre symptoms of paralysis and convulsions at the same time. Russian operatives are suspected of using the nerve agent, and they attempted poisoning of a former Russian spy and his daughter. The incident frayed relations between Europe and Russia.

2018 will also be remembered as the year that genetic engineering made significant advances from the techniques modest beginning with Dolly the sheep in 1997. This year, scientists cloned pigs, dogs, mules and monkeys, and gene editing techniques are now being used to create designer animals, like these Holsteins genetically engineered to be hornless. Dairy cows like Holsteins grow horns and they’re quite dangerous for human workers and also for their fellow cows.

Scientists also uncovered some odd behavior in an ancient species of the humble but painful wasp. X-rays uncovered a 30 million year-old species of parasitic wasps about the size of a grain of rice that even way back then was feeding on ancient flies. Either the host is paralyzed or it continues to feed and breathe in and live relatively normally but with this parasitoid thing, living and growing inside it and eventually of course it kills the host.

Another puzzle the natural world was solved when scientists figure out how the annoying dandelion manages to be so good at spreading through the air. Scientists are using this new information as a possible way to create micro flying objects that could stay afloat on wind currents for extended periods of time.

And finally using The Very Large Telescope in Chile, scientists were able to monitor a small star passing close to a black hole, and see how its light was distorted and warped by the black holes super gravity. The observation confirmed one of the basic predictions of Einstein’s theory of relativity. The universe is not just made up of space, but a bizarre combination of space and time that can be affected by gravity. Now that was a busy year.

Kevin Unix, VOA news. 



科学家还解密了一些远古生物的怪异行为,比如这种安分守己又把人蜇得生疼的黄蜂。X射线下,我们发现了一种3000万年前的寄生黄蜂,其大小跟一粒米差不多。直到现在,这种黄蜂依然以古代苍蝇为食。黄蜂的宿主只要不瘫痪,黄蜂就会继续以其为食并正常生活,寄生在苍蝇的身上,直到最后宿主死亡 。




来自:现金网开户网 文章地址: http://www.newzzw.com/19/01/Normal02075054ke.html